In the aftermath of the Eritrean–Ethiopian War (1998-2000), both parties repatriated Prisoners of War (PoWs). The Algiers Peace Agreement enabled an independent commission to hear claims related to potential violations of international humanitarian law. This included an assessment as to whether POWs repatriation was made incompliance with IHL.
Faced with an increasing number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) created by the conflict with Boko Haram, Nigeria has been taking measures to ensure satisfactory conditions to IDPs. This was made possible thanks to the cooperation with UNHCR and other agencies.
In 2012 the UN and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army signed an agreement to stop child recruitment; in 2015 the South Sudan Democratic Army handed over children to UNICEF as part of deal between the group and the State, heralded as “one of the largest ever demobilisations of children” (UNICEF).
In Libya, after social unrest escalated into armed conflict in 2011, the detaining authorities permitted the ICRC to visit different detaining facilities and detainees of their choice.
In the context of the conflict in Sierra Leone, over 6,000 child soldiers have been demobilized. This was possible thanks to the cooperation of the parties, with the support of entities such as UNAMSIL and UNICEF.
In 2011, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which acts in support of the Somali government in its fight against al-Shabaab, developed an indirect fire policy which resulted in reduction of harm to the civilian population. Number of measures have been taken by AMISOM in implementing its new policy, including the creation of no fire zones and setting restriction on the modalities of use of certain types of weapons.
During the 2007-2009 conflict, a non-State armed group Mouvement des Nigériens pour la Justice (MNJ) allowed the ICRC to provide first aid to captured soldiers of the Forces Armées du Niger (FAN) and released the soldiers in need of medical assistance. The ICRC was also granted the access to visit the detainees during their internment. The MNJ later released the remaining soldiers.
While it was involved in the armed opposition with the Government of Sudan, the SPLM/A committed to a total ban on anti-personnel mines, first by adopting a resolution and then by signing a Deed of Commitment. In 2002, it signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Sudan and UNMAS in order to undertake mine action. Following South Sudan’s independence, SPLM/A as a ruling party played a role in South Sudan’s succession to the Ottawa Convention and continued with the mine action.
In 2011, Chad signed an Action Plan with the United Nations designed to address its use of child soldiers. Chad took concrete measures to implement the Action plan. It adopted legislation prohibiting and criminalizing the recruitment of child soldiers and undertook screening measures to ensure that no child soldiers remained in its armed forces. In 2014, the Action Plan was declared fulfilled and Chad was delisted from the UN Secretary-General’s Report on Children and Armed Conflict.