Europe and Central Asia

Between 1999 and 2009, Albania removed the landmines placed along its border during the Kosovo [1] conflict. Although Albania was not directly involved in the conflict, it took the steps required by the Ottawa Convention [2] to remove all anti-personnel mines within ten years. With assistance from the international community, Albania was able to restore safety to the affected regions.
On 29 October and 14 November 2020, Armenia and Azerbaijan, as part of mutual agreements, facilitated the return and transfer of the dead following the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. The support and facilitation offered by foreign governments and organisations such as the ICRC and the OSCE may have contributed to respect for IHL.
In the context of the 1992-1995 armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a special agreement was made by the parties containing, among others, the commitment to disseminate IHL. Furthermore, numerous legal advisers were called by the parties to advice commanders and soldiers on Rules of Engagement and other legal matters.
The Netherlands adopted new legislation implementing the First Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention in 2007 and subsequently restored four icons to Cyprus in 2013. External political pressure and judicial action by Cyprus – and, possibly, also the Netherland’s own experience of the looting of its cultural property during past armed conflicts – seem to have influenced this act of compliance with IHL.
In the aftermath of the conflict in the 1990’s and 2008 in Georgia, the ICRC facilitated the establishment of coordination mechanisms for clarifying the fate of missing persons, which has brought concrete results in recovering the bodies of the dead, informing the next of kin and returning to them the remains of their loved ones.
The PKK operated a shift in its public rhetoric in 1995 to acknowledge the importance of international humanitarian law and humanitarian principles. Its internal rules on the conduct of hostilities were published in 2011. The PKK is listed as a terrorist organization by many States.