Conduct of hostilities

In 2009, the Commander of NATO’s International Security Assistance issued a Tactical Directive in order to reduce civilian casualties in operations in Afghanistan. This was notably seen as an operational issue since loss of popular support was deemed decisive in the struggle. This resulted in both significant security gains and reduced civilian casualties. In 2016, two former high-level military… Read more ...
In the city of Gao, a force Commander of the French military decides to use 30 mm shells instead of a helicopter armed with HOT (High Subsonic Optical Remote-Guided, Tube-Launched) missiles to destroy a police station under the control of the enemy, judging that using HOT missiles in an urban area was too great of a risk to harm civilians.