Conduct of hostilities

Croatia ratified the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention in 1998. Since then, it has undertaken various demining activities and succeeded in removing many of the anti-personnel landmines on its territory. A number of different reasons may have led to such compliance with IHL. They include: the awareness that these actions are likely to have beneficial and long-term consequences – for the socio-economic development of the country, for instance; support and political pressure from a broad range of external actors, such as other states.
In March 2011, during Canada's Operation Mobile in Libya, two Canadian fighter jets aborted an airstrike that they had been authorized to carry out: they did so because of their assessment that the collateral damage would be too high. Their actions, which demonstrated respect for the principles of proportionality and precautions in attack, may have been influenced by military ethics and also by military interests, particularly the wish to preserve political support for Operation Mobile.
While it was involved in the armed opposition with the Government of Sudan, the SPLM/A committed to a total ban on anti-personnel mines, first by adopting a resolution and then by signing a Deed of Commitment. In 2002, it signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Sudan and UNMAS in order to undertake mine action. Following South Sudan’s independence, SPLM/A as a ruling party played a role in South Sudan’s succession to the Ottawa Convention and continued with the mine action.
Followings its ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty, the Government of Thailand has taken significant steps to destroy its stockpile of antipersonnel mines, de-mine land and provide community education about the risks of landmines. Casualties from landmines have fallen considerably in the following decades.
In 2011, the Libyan Ministry of Defence mandated the Libyan Mine Action Centre (LMAC) to manage demining. In 2013 the first ammunition shelter was built in Misrata, under the Libyan and UN supervision, thanks to the funding of the Swiss government, coupled with further actions.
In the city of Gao, a force Commander of the French military decides to use 30 mm shells instead of a helicopter armed with HOT (High Subsonic Optical Remote-Guided, Tube-Launched) missiles to destroy a police station under the control of the enemy, judging that using HOT missiles in an urban area was too great of a risk to harm civilians.
During the armed conflict that took place between Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) until 2009, the parties and international actors worked together to remove landmines.
Implemented in 2008, the Civilian Casualty Tracking Cell (CCTC) was created within the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan to collect data on civilian casualties. This mechanism resulted in the issuance of new tactical directives and guidelines by ISAF and NATO in an effort to mitigate civilian casualties. As a result, civilian casualty rates caused by pro-government forces significantly dropped in the following year.
In 2011, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which acts in support of the Somali government in its fight against al-Shabaab, developed an indirect fire policy which resulted in reduction of harm to the civilian population. Number of measures have been taken by AMISOM in implementing its new policy, including the creation of no fire zones and setting restriction on the modalities of use of certain types of weapons.