Conduct of hostilities

Croatia ratified the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention in 1998. Since then, it has undertaken various demining activities and succeeded in removing many of the anti-personnel landmines on its territory. A number of different reasons may have led to such compliance with IHL. They include: the awareness that these actions are likely to have beneficial and long-term consequences – for the socio-economic development of the country, for instance; support and political pressure from a broad range of external actors, such as other states.
In March 2011, during Canada's Operation Mobile in Libya, two Canadian fighter jets aborted an airstrike that they had been authorized to carry out: they did so because of their assessment that the collateral damage would be too high. Their actions, which demonstrated respect for the principles of proportionality and precautions in attack, may have been influenced by military ethics and also by military interests, particularly the wish to preserve political support for Operation Mobile.
The African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) took steps in its operations to protect civilians from the effects of hostilities, including an operational civilian casualty tracking cell; this was prompted by strategic military considerations as well as the legal obligation to protect civilians.
During the armed conflict that took place between Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) until 2009, the parties and international actors worked together to remove landmines.
Following its ratification of the Landmine Ban Convention in 1998, Peru has undertaken the destruction and clearance of anti-personnel landmines.
In 2011, the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which acts in support of the Somali government in its fight against al-Shabaab, developed an indirect fire policy which resulted in reduction of harm to the civilian population. Number of measures have been taken by AMISOM in implementing its new policy, including the creation of no fire zones and setting restriction on the modalities of use of certain types of weapons.
While it was involved in the armed opposition with the Government of Sudan, the SPLM/A committed to a total ban on anti-personnel mines, first by adopting a resolution and then by signing a Deed of Commitment. In 2002, it signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Sudan and UNMAS in order to undertake mine action. Following South Sudan’s independence, SPLM/A as a ruling party played a role in South Sudan’s succession to the Ottawa Convention and continued with the mine action.
In 2011, the Libyan Ministry of Defence mandated the Libyan Mine Action Centre (LMAC) to manage demining. In 2013 the first ammunition shelter was built in Misrata, under the Libyan and UN supervision, thanks to the funding of the Swiss government, coupled with further actions.
Implemented in 2008, the Civilian Casualty Tracking Cell (CCTC) was created within the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan to collect data on civilian casualties. This mechanism resulted in the issuance of new tactical directives and guidelines by ISAF and NATO in an effort to mitigate civilian casualties. As a result, civilian casualty rates caused by pro-government forces significantly dropped in the following year.
In 2015, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement–North neutralized its stockpile of anti-personnel landmines following the signature of a Deed of Commitment, and with the technical help provided by experts from Geneva Call. Subsequently, the United Nations Mine Action Service, collaborating with the Sudanese Government continues to clear millions of square meters from unexploded ordnances (UXO) and landmines.