View cases by country

Falklands Malvinas

Falklands Malvinas
7628

Falklands Malvinas

Falklands Malvinas
7628

Falklands Malvinas

Falklands Malvinas
7628

Falklands Malvinas

Falklands Malvinas
7628

Peru

Peru
7882

Peru

Peru
7882

Peru

Peru
7882

Peru

Peru
7882

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo
7602

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo
7602

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo
7602

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo
7602

Indonesia

Indonesia
7896

Somalia

Somalia
7613

Somalia

Somalia
7613

Somalia

Somalia
7613

Somalia

Somalia
7613

Somalia

Somalia
7613

Somalia

Somalia
7613

Colombia

Colombia
7625

Colombia

Colombia
7625

Colombia

Colombia
7625

Colombia

Colombia
7625

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast
7601

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast
7601

Central African Republic

Central African Republic
7599

Central African Republic

Central African Republic
7599

Central African Republic

Central African Republic
7599

Central African Republic

Central African Republic
7599

South Sudan

South Sudan
7615

South Sudan

South Sudan
7615

South Sudan

South Sudan
7615

South Sudan

South Sudan
7615

South Sudan

South Sudan
7615

South Sudan

South Sudan
7615

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka
7649

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka
7649

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka
7649

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka
7649

Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea

Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea
7612

Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea

Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea
7612

Nigeria

Nigeria
7610

Nigeria

Nigeria
7610

Sudan

Sudan
7616

Sudan

Sudan
7616

Sudan

Sudan
7616

Sudan

Sudan
7616

Sudan

Sudan
7616

Sudan

Sudan
7616

Philippines

Philippines
7647

Philippines

Philippines
7647

Philippines

Philippines
7647

Philippines

Philippines
7647

Philippines

Philippines
7647

Philippines

Philippines
7647

El Salvador

El Salvador
7627

El Salvador

El Salvador
7627

Chad

Chad
7888

Chad

Chad
7888

Ethiopia and Eritrea

Ethiopia and Eritrea
7603

Ethiopia and Eritrea

Ethiopia and Eritrea
7603

Thailand

Thailand
7651

Thailand

Thailand
7651

Yemen

Yemen
7680

Yemen

Yemen
7680

Niger

Niger
7890

Niger

Niger
7890

Mali

Mali
7607

Mali

Mali
7607

Mali

Mali
7607

Mali

Mali
7607

India

India
7640

India

India
7640

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Libya

Libya
7606

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Nepal

Nepal
7645

Kuwait

Kuwait
7676

Kuwait

Kuwait
7676

Kuwait

Kuwait
7676

Kuwait

Kuwait
7676

Jordan

Jordan
7895

Jordan

Jordan
7895

Iran

Iran
7673

Iran

Iran
7673

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Iraq

Iraq
7674

Syria

Syria
7679

Syria

Syria
7679

Afghanistan

Afghanistan
7635

Afghanistan

Afghanistan
7635

Afghanistan

Afghanistan
7635

Afghanistan

Afghanistan
7635

Cyprus

Cyprus
7656

Cyprus

Cyprus
7656

United States

United States
7634

United States

United States
7634

Türkiye

Türkiye
7669

Türkiye

Türkiye
7669

Georgia

Georgia
7660

Georgia

Georgia
7660

Georgia

Georgia
7660

Georgia

Georgia
7660

Georgia

Georgia
7660

Georgia

Georgia
7660

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina
7654

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina
7654

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina
7654

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina
7654

Croatia

Croatia
7655

Croatia

Croatia
7655

Croatia

Croatia
7655

Croatia

Croatia
7655

NEW: Iraq, Protection of the Mosul Dam

A landscape image of the Mosul Dam in Iraq, among a background of mountains.

NEW: Iraq, Protection of the Mosul Dam

The dam of Mosul was constructed between 1981 and 1986 in northern Iraq. In August 2014, the United States coordinated its airpower with Kurdish Peshmerga and Iraqi Army ground forces to retake the highly fragile Mosul Dam in Iraq from the Islamic State.

By respecting heightened protections afforded to critical infrastructure under IHL, a humanitarian disaster was avoided.  

Middle East

NEW: Armenia/Azerbaijan, Exchange of Remains of the Dead

 Grave of a young man who was killed in combat in the context of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

NEW: Armenia/Azerbaijan, Exchange of Remains of the Dead

On 29 October and 14 November 2020, Armenia and Azerbaijan, as part of mutual agreements, facilitated the return and transfer of the dead following the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

The first case highlighted in the new 2022-2023 IHL in Action case studies, this case study showcases the support and facilitation offered by foreign governments and organisations in contribution to respect for IHL.

El Salvador/ FMLN, Facilitation of Access for Vaccination Campaign

El Salvador

El Salvador/ FMLN, Facilitation of Access for Vaccination Campaign

Take a look at this case study, which occurred in 1985 when a series of “days of tranquility” to cease hostilities were agreed upon to facilitate medical workers' access to children for the purpose of vaccination campaigns.

This act of compliance with IHL was motivated by the joint recognition of the serious health crisis and was made possible thanks to the support of external actors and religious leaders.

Indonesia, Release of Detainees

Aceh, Indonesia

Indonesia, Release of Detainees

Learn more about the peace agreement with the Free Aceh Movement (‘GAM’) signed on 15 August 2005, where the Government of Indonesia released thousands of people detained during the conflict.

This act of compliance with IHL is said to have been motivated by the consequences of the Indian ocean tsunami of 2004 and has paved the way towards a successful peace process.

Asia and The Pacific

The Netherlands/Cyprus, Repatriation of Cultural Property

Credits: http://www.mcw.gov.cy/mcw/da/da.nsf/All/49DAF5E76419EBAC42257C300035C4BA?OpenDocument

The Netherlands/Cyprus, Repatriation of Cultural Property

This case study describes how the Netherlands adopted new legislation implementing the First Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention in 2007 and subsequently restored four icons to Cyprus in 2013.

What influenced this act of compliance with IHL? External political pressure? Judicial action by Cyprus? Its own experience of looting of its cultural property during past armed conflicts?

About the project

“IHL in action: Respect for the law on the battlefield” is a collection of real case-studies documenting compliance with international humanitarian law (IHL) in modern warfare. Based on publicly available information, these cases have been assessed by academics as demonstrating respect for IHL. From 2016 to 2020 the project has been conducted by four leadoff IHL clinics: Emory University School of Law, Leiden University, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya and Roma Tre University.

The current active partnership is with Leiden University. All cases have undergone independent peer review. The database is hosted by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) with a view to encourage the reporting, collection and promotion of instances of respect for IHL. The cases shall not be construed as reflecting the views of the ICRC.

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